Mouling National Park is a national park located in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, spread primarily over the Upper Siang district and parts of the West Siang and Siang district. It was the second national park to be created in the state, after Namdapha National Park in 1972. The Mouling National Park and the Dibang Wildlife Sanctuary are located fully or partly within Dihang-Dibang Biosphere Reserve.
The park is named after the nearby Mouling peak. It is said that the Mouling hill produces a poisonous plant that is found in the Mouling area only. Mouling is an Adi word that means “red poison” or “red blood”, which is believed to be red latex from a tree species found locally. Moulíng means (among = soil/land and yalíng = red), from among (mo) yalíng (líng). Therefore, moulíng could be read as “red soil”.
Besides, there are some mythological stories associated with Mouling hills pertaining to the Apang community. The area is thought to have a large number of poisonous snakes, but this cannot be verified as the ecology of the area has been sparsely explored.
The Mouling National Park was created in 1986 vide Gazette notification No. FOR/55/Gen/81 dt.30th Dec.’86.
Location and Geography
The national park covers an area of about 483 km² forming the western part of the Dihang-Dibang Biosphere Reserve. The terrain is rugged with an altitudinal range of 750 to 3064 m at the highest point, the Mouling Peak. The Siyom River flows along the western fringes of the park and several small rivers such as the Siring, Krobong, Semong, and Subong drain into the Siang river near the eastern boundary of the park.
The park is under the administrative control of the Divisional Forest Office located in Jenggin. The Forest Department’s managerial control is limited by the lack of road communication and all the divisional/range/beat offices are located well outside the park. The park boundaries have been drawn through an aerial survey based on artificial and natural boundaries such as the Siyom River in the west, and on-ground demarcation of sections of the boundary is still not complete. The park has two ranges; the Ramsing range accessible from the Bomdo village and the Jengging range accessible from the Lissing village.
The vegetation of the area varies according to the altitude. Temperate alpine and coniferous forest at the upper reaches whereas the lower area is covered with tropical evergreen forest. The area is extremely humid, with heavy rainfall (2343 mm annually) and no well-defined dry season. In low altitude temperature ranges between 15 °C to 38 °C, Winter snowfall is experienced in higher altitudes. Temperature varies from 4.2 °C to 17.7 °C at altitudes ranging from 2,200 m onwards.
With elevations ranging from 400 m to over 3000 m in the park, it forms a transition zone between tropical forests at lower altitudes to most temperate forest at altitudes above 2800 m.
Major rivers/streams coming down from the catchment area of Ganging Mouling area are Yarku, Niyikgong, Sikir Umding. From the catchment area of Mouling Sibum, the rivers/streams are Karbung, Subbung, and Sipo. The River Siyom flows along the western borders of the park, then flows into the Siang River, which is at the eastern boundary.
Flora and Fauna
Mouling National Park is one of the most intriguing parks mainly because of it unique flora and fauna. The area around Mouling National park is one of great bio-diversity, with a juxtaposition of different biotopes, and is often called the state’s cradle of biodiversity. The richness and varieties of flora and fauna in the Mouling National Park is perhaps unequal on the earth.
Mouling National Park in Arunachal Pradesh has been recognized as one of the 18 biodiversity hotspots of the world.
Mouling is known for its three varieties of goat – antelopes, locally known as takin, coral and serow.
Mouling Park is also known for various species of mammals like Coral, Takin, Serow, Tiger, Wild buffalo, Panther, Elephant, Red panda, Hog deer, Barking deer, Hoolock gibbon, Sambar, etc and various species of birds like White-winged Wood Duck, Monal Pheasants, Tragopan, Giant Hornbill, Owl, Forest Eagle, Snowy throated babblers, Chakma, Green cochoa, Peafowl, Assam Bamboo Partridge, Fairy Bluebird etc; including reptiles such as Indian Python, King Cobra, Reticulated Python, Monitor lizard etc.