by Nov 13, 2021Demographics, Tribes0 comments

The Singpho tribe inhabit parts of India, China, and Myanmar. In India, Singpho Tribe is located in the state of Arunachal Pradesh and Assam. Consisting of a population of at least 40,000 in India, usually they live in the villages of Bordumsa, Miao, Innao, N-hpum, Namgo, Ketetong, Pangna, Phup, N-htem, Mungong, Kumchai, Pangsun, Hasak, Katha, Bisa, Dibong, Duwarmara, Namo and Namsai, etc. The Singpho are the same people as those called the Kachin in Burma and the Jingpo in China. They speak the Singpho dialect of the Jingpo language.

The Singphos are divided into various clans, which are known as Gams, generally each under a chief. The main Gams include the Bessa, Duffa, Luttao, Luttora, Tesari, Mirip, Lophae, Lutong, and Magrong. The Singpho are also divided into four classes, namely Shangai, Myung, Lubrung, and Mirip.


The Singphos have no written history of their own. During the Ahom rule in the Brahmaputra valley, they had their own political statehood. As such, their life history is more or less dependent upon legends. A few oral traditions of the people throw light on the life of the Singphos. One such tale reveals that their settlement in Burma was in the Hookang valley. Hukang is a Singpho word which means “a fence of human heads”. Here ‘Hu’ means human heads, ‘kang’ means fence.

It has been mentioned that due to some natural calamities like the blooming of bamboo flowers and subsequent famine, large fires etc, the people of the Hookang valley got scared. Along with the atrocities by the Burmese upon them, the Singphos entered into the eastern part of India, presently known as the Dihing Patkai region. During the first three decades in the 19th century, the continuous invasion of the Mans, particularly in the conflict of the Sadiya Saikhowa battle, most of the Singpho returned to their original homeland Burma but a few of them stayed back in the Patkai foothills. Later on, the Singphos got divided and as a result, a section of Singpho settled in the Lohit and Changlang district of Arunachal Pradesh and the rest stayed in the foothills of the Patkai range, the region covering Bisagaon, Inthem, Ketetong, Khatapani, Kotha, Ulup, Hassaek village, etc, in the Margherita Sub Division under Tinisukia District.

The Singphos migrated to North East India from the Kachin State of Burma. According to Sir E. A. Gait, the Singphos were originally belonging to the land between Sinduwin and Patkai range. According to a Tibeto Burman linguist, James A. Matisaff, the Jingpaw (known in regions other than India) or Singpho, which consists of a single language with only relatively slight difference among the dialects, is of paramount historical significance. According to Colonel Hannay, the Singphos are identical to the race Kakus or Kakhyens of Burma whose main habitat was on the great eastern branch of the Irrawadi. Dalton, in his Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal, mentions that the Singphos belonged to a race called Burmese Kakhyens or Kakus, whose original settlements were on the great eastern branches of the Irrawadi river.


Singpho is a dialect of the Jingpho language spoken by the Singpho people of Arunachal Pradesh and Assam. “Singpho” is the local pronunciation of “Jingpho“. The Singpho language belongs to the Sino-Tibetan linguistic group. The Singpho language possesses many words in common with the Abor, the Burmese, and the Manipuri dialects. The grammatical construction is almost the same. There are similarities between Singpho and Tibetan languages as both are from the same ancestral home.


The life of the Singphos is full of folk songs and music from birth till death. It has been seen that the folk songs have an immense influence on their social and private life. These songs reveal the myths, legends of the community as well as their love for nature and beauty. Some of the folksongs of the Singphos are called Mam thu soiwa, sayaw goiningkin, Hka ywang Ningkin, etc.

The second domain of intangible cultural heritage is the performing art, which includes vocal and instrumental music, dance, drama, theatre, etc. The performing art of the Singphos are very colourful. They have music and dance for every occasion in life.

Marrion D Pough in his book Games of NEFA describes about the different traditional games played by the Singphos. The two favorite games played by Singpho children are (1) spinning the top and (2) playing with circular jungle seeds called in Singpho language as Chimen. It is somewhat similar to the marbles played by many other tribes of the northeast like the Sherdukpens. There are some other traditional games played by the Singphos. These are Bowkhim Sing-Duam (Pillow fight); Ghumrung Labby (Jumping like a horse); Kali (Archery); Thumnuang (Pole –pusher); Naman Shadow (climbing a pole which is smeared with mastered oil), etc.

The Singphos have lots of vocal and musical instruments which they play with different dance performances and songs. Some of the instruments are sing-(the drum), piman (flute), bow (Big-Tal), chupsan (tal), and many more.

Like other tribal people of North East India, the Singphos also observes various rites and rituals at different phases of their life. They perform various rites in connection with worship rites, birth, wedding and funeral rites, friendship ceremonies, traditional games, fairs, and festivals, practiced by women and men. These rites are mainly divided into two parts – Religious and social. Religious practices of the Singphos are mainly connected with Buddhism. The religious ceremonies are called Sumtong in their language. Social practices are mainly related with birth, death, and marriage.

The Singphos have their own traditional methods of diagnosis and cure, and they have faith in their own medicinal plants. According to their beliefs, diseases are mainly caused by evil spirits and therefore can be cured by spiritual methods. They also use traditional herbs, roots, and leaves of wild plants to cure diseases. The Singphos food habits have very high medical values. Falap, the Singpho tea, has very high medicinal food values. The spices they use in food also have medicinal qualities.


According to the Singhpo language, the village is called miriyeng. The name of the village is given after the clan name of the founder. The Singphos are patriarchal, patrilineal, and patrilocal. The family is headed by the father (itana Mitau). He is also the owner of the property. Father has the responsibility of taking care of the family. On his death, the eldest son takes the position of the father. The family property is divided among the sons. But one who stays with the parents and takes care of them gets an extra share. The females have no right over the property but they are allowed to use it freely. But the widow of the diseased gets a share of the property.

The Singpho society is very well organized. Their society is divided into several clans or ‘fan’ as called in Singpho language, which means blood relation. Mainly there are five major clans along with many sub-clans. These are :

  • Tesan (sub clan- wangkhet, ningro, siyongsib, ulup, bisaladoi etc),
  • Mirip (subclans – gudung and mache),
  • Laphe (sub clans – nokhum),
  • Lutong (umpomp) and
  • Mayrung (sub clan – morang).

Each clan has a Kaku and a Singpho branch. Besides these, there is a clan of Lattora kakus called Lasso, originally from the Chinese Frontier. At present, there are somewhere around twelve branches of these five clans designated after the names of their respective chiefs. These are Bisa, Dapha, Lottura, Ningrang, nirupisi, kowa, luwa, wakhetkamsang, kunki, inthem, dapha, gaju, turung, wankhm, kiangtusu, etc. Every chieftain maintains his own separate independence and seldom unites with others.

The members and branches of Singpho clans and families are as follows. Gam is the affix indicating the elder branch or member of a family; Noung the second; La the third; Thu the fourth; Tung the fifth etc. For example, Bisa Gam is the head of the clan. Ningroola is the third branch of the Ningroo family. In Assam, the resident Singphos are of the Tesan division. They are subdivided into three clans; called Tenghi, Mayho, and Nimbroong. The Singphos have many legends and myths related to their formation of clans. According to one of their legends, the Gudungs of the Mirip clans climbed a simul tree when they build a new house. In Singpho language, the simul tree is known as Gudung. Therefore they are known as Gudung. Similarly the Ningdas of Tesan clan derived their name as they were very sincere in their work.

The Singpho society is also broadly divided into three clusters viz. the Chiefs, the Plebeians, and the Slaves. The top cluster of the society in Singpho language called Ddufan, literally means the royalty. The Ddufan also has a number of clans. The middle cluster is known as Mrengdong, which literally means the commoners. The slaves are known as Mayam. Another important social position is held by the Dumsa or religious priest of the Singpho community. But every village doesn’t have a Dumsa.

Socio-Political institutions of the Singpho

In the case of social structure, Singpho society believes in the age-old tradition of their kingship. Bisa is the supreme of all socio-political activities. Every Singpho village is under the kingship of a raja who is assisted by a Gaonburah or a Chief. Chieftainship is an important feature of the Singpho society. It is based on hereditary. The Singpho chief is considered to be the head not only of the village but also of the entire territory under his jurisdiction. The Chief has several privileges and he can use the whole land under his jurisdiction. The Chief operates all day-to-day legal activities with the consultation of the Raja. The village council known as Rangjuta helps in the administrative affairs. Earlier, the chief in every village had legal and administrative powers of the village and it was his duty to direct all village activities related to the welfare and wellbeing of the villagers. But at present, the system of monarchy does not prevail in the villages. The members of the council are selected by the villagers. They are selected on the basis of merit, social status, service rendered by them towards the society.

The social administrative system of the Singphos was very systematic since the earlier stage. For the peaceful administration of their society, they have a Gam (Gaonburha) in every village. He was selected by the villagers. There was another officer called the Dyendri (chief justice) in every village. He was assisted by six to seven experienced villagers who were also selected by the public. They are called Enthe. There was another high-level officer from the royal family who is called Draban. Most of the day-to-day legal activities like small crimes were solved by the Gam at the village level. Sometimes he took the suggestions of other elder villagers too. If the case did not get solved at his level, then they went to the Dyendri. He, in turn, tried to solve the case with discussion with the Enthe. The Gams also helped him. The Drabans suggestion is also taken. After that, he decides the appropriate punishment for the crime. At village administration, the Gam played a very important role. The process of selecting a Gam is called Kumsa. In earlier days every Gam had one territory reserved under him. The people within this territory abided by his rule as their administrative controller. The Gam himself should have the ability to control the people to go by his decision without opposition. Though the Gam has the administrative power to control the villagers, his social status was the same as others. He had to work in his own field for economic benefit as well as the survival of his family. The people of his territory had to give free services to the king at the time of jungle clearing, weeding, and harvesting in his fields. In return, they got free food and drinks.

At the present time though, the traditional system of administration still prevails at the village level but in most cases, they are willing to take the help of the modern legal system. There are village councils established in each village, the Gaonburah is the government representative on the council. Small matters are decided by the village councils and the serious cases are decided by the district administration. The social structure of the Singpho community has become the cultural identity of the community.


The Singphos living in Assam and Arunachal Pradesh produce paddy, potato, corn and many other vegetables and fruits for their living hood. They do shifting cultivation in the hill slopes. The Singphos in the plains practice water cultivation. Hunting is also prevailed in their society.


The Singphos are mainly Buddhist by religion. The Singphos adopted Buddhism in South East Asia especially in the Hukang valley where they lived, and before they migrated.

The Singphos do not have any supreme God. They believe in a great number of spirits whom they call the Nats. The Nats are not divine Gods, it has been found that there was not any distinction between men and Nats. The Nats are the sole repositories of powers superior to men as they control nature and human life. The principal deities are Munat(Indra), Bum Nat (Hills deity), Khamut(Water God), Chuthung (Forest God), Mreng Nut(Village deity), Intha Sumathi(God of houses), FuNut(deity of trees) to whom they offer their prayers regularly. Though they do not have a superior God, Mathum Matha is worshiped as the supreme power. Some other spirits who are worshiped are Ningse Nat, Mutung, Dingnun Nat, Ciyong Nat, Susan Nat, etc.

The Singphos were largely converted into Buddhism during the later two centuries from 1800 till the present date. According to oral folklore, the Singphos imagine Chau-ci-giya, a Buddhist God as the creator of all things. Another deity, Chau-Khung-Chang, is adapted in their pantheon. In another legend, the Ari Mittia is described as the one who brought everything into being and is identified with the sun. Ari Mittia is no other than Arya maitreya – a Bodhisattva of the Buddhist pantheon.

In every Singpho village, one can notice a monastery, which they call ‘thang’ or ‘kyang’, generally in the eastern part of the village. Most of the older Changs are built of timber and thatched which is attested by Dalton’s writings, though we do have an example of concrete Changs nowadays. A complete Singpho monastery has a Buddhist temple proper (chang), living quarters (kuti) for monks (Bhikkhus), novices and temple boys, stupa (Chedi or Chedi Kangmu), Bodhi tree, boundary stone (Sima or Simaghar), rest houses (Sarap) for upasaka and upasika, a boat like structure (Chongfra or Kyangfra) and so on.


Shapawng Young Manou Poi — 15th February

Among the various festivals celebrated by the Singpho ‘Shapawng Young Manou Poi’ is the most important and colorful one. Singphos from every section gather and mingle together in this festival without any barrier. This festival unites the Singphos residing in different parts of North East India and other parts of the world. Recently, the Kuki brethren of Manipur also joined hands to add color to this festival. This festival testifies Singphos’ rich cultural heritage apart from strengthening the unity and integrity of the community. It comprises meaningful dances, community feasts, rituals, and prayers. The meaning of the word Manau is to dance and Poi means festival. It is the most significant dance festival of the Singphos. It is celebrated by the Singphos residing all over the world, especially Assam and Arunachal Pradesh, every year on the 14th of February. It was celebrated for three consecutive days. This festival has a resemblance with the Me-dam-me-phi of the Ahom community.

According to the Singphos, their ancestor Tingly Yawng, in order to get the blessings of his father Shapwang Yawng, celebrated the first Manou Poi. Later it came to be known as Shapwng Yuwng Manou Poi. This festival is mainly celebrated in memory of their ancestors. This festival is also known as the ethno-cultural festival of the Singphos. It is an effort to preserve protect and promote the age-old cultural heritage of this small tribal population.

In this festival, ethnic dance is performed to the rhythm of the drumbeats known as ‘Gongs’ and ‘Thongs’. The festival opens with the setting of Manao Shadungs, which are multicoloured painted totem posts erected specially for the occasion. These are regarded as the symbol of the festival. About eleven or eight wooden poles each about twenty meters high are erected at the center of the stage. While the posts are erected Gidhing Gumdin Manao or the dance of unity is performed, praising unity and prosperity. After that Podeng Manao or the war-winning dance is performed. This is followed by Shut Manao or the farewell dance and so on. Two poles of equal length are placed at the centre of the Shadung as the main poles. They are called Dungri and Dungra. The sun and the moon are drawn on them. The pole across them has a bird sculpted on one end. The dance is headed by two leaders. They wear dresses in which pictures of Khongrang(hornbill) and dragons are drawn. Everyone wears their traditional dress at the festival. The dance festival is started with the hosting of the flag with a picture of two swords. This flag indicates the bravery of the Singpho tribe. The dance is divided into three parts in a sequence. First, middle and last. The first part symbolizes unity and lasts for two and a half hours. At the closing of the dance ceremony, everyone dances with a Laphaw (Koupat) in their hands. In this way, they give farewell to their ancestors and other deities.

The festival was first solemnized for the first time in Miao in 1985. Since then, it has been celebrated annually by the Singphos of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. In these passing years, the quality of the festival has improved by enhancing it into four days. Improvement in dance and music is also seen. Many new things are included, like felicitating meritorious students of the area, fashion shows, exhibitions and stalls are organized where the community household items are displayed, etc.

Sangken — 14th April

According to the Singpho tradition, Sangken is a New Year festival. It is celebrated in the fifth month of the Buddhist calendar, which falls in April. In this festival, otherwise known as the water festival, the image of Lord Buddha is brought out and kept in a small makeshift house (Changfra), built by the villagers and give holly bath ceremoniously with great devotion. The festival continues for three days when everybody offers food items to Buddha and prays for peace, harmony, prosperity, and happiness, and seeks blessings to avoid the occurrence of misfortune in the coming year. At the end of the third day, the priests, villagers, and the monks give the ritual holy bath to the idol and brings it back to the main temple.

Maiko Chumphai — February

Maiko Chumphai is celebrated on the full moon day in the month of February, when the youths of the village prepare a tower-like structure of firewood, locally called Maiko Chumphai. In the early morning the next day, the Maiko is set on fire, which is followed by a feast. This is celebrated to provide warmness to the monks to get a happy and prosperous year and, symbolically, it reminds us about Buddha, who on this day at Saranath told his disciples to have parinirvana after three months and people thought that the Lord would not be there in the next winter and thus offered warmth by setting fire to the firewood.

Poi-Puthikam (Buddha Jayanti) — May

The Poi-Puthikam or Buddha Jayanti festival is celebrated in the month of May, when the people listen to Ahimsa discourse from monks, recite Panchashillas and sing religious songs, followed by a mass prayer and community feast.

Nowa storti — Jun-Jul

The festival of Nowa storti is observed from the full moon day of June-July to the full moon day of September-October for three months. On this day, villagers give alms of food and fruit to the monks and the festival signifies that one, who feeds the hungry, would be happy in their lives and hereafter.

Jere Sdang — Sept-Oct

Jere Sdang is celebrated on a full moon day of Asvina (September-October), when the people offer varieties of fruits and honey and attend prayer in the temple.

Nawa Sang Sdang —

The Nawa Sang Sdang festivals is observed in the beginning of the rainy season on a full moon day when the villagers offer sweets, cake and other food items also with required articles for the monks for their day to day life. The devotees observe fasting.

Nawa Oak Sdang — Oct-Nov

In the Nawa Oak Sdang, celebrated on a full moon day (October-November), the monks receive large-scale offering from devotees. The devotees prepare a small artificial tree called Petesa (Desire giving trees) and attach packets of food stuff hanging from the coloured branches, which are given as gifts to the monks in recognition of their sacrifice and piety.

Poi Kando —

The Poi Kando festival is organized during the rainy season when the junior monks lead the devotees of different villages to mass prayer.

Katting Poi — Oct-Nov

The Katting Poi is observed on the full moon day of October-November, when robes for Lord Buddha and monks are woven, dyed and offered by the womenfolk, followed by a mass prayer and a community feast.


For Singpho women, “Khakhu-Khrings” and “Man-Mou-Khrings” are the principal traditional dresses. “Man-Mou -Khring” is worn by females participating in the dance of “Shapawang Manao Yawang Poi“, the traditional festival of Singphos. There are some other women’s wear like Bukang(Mekhala), Nuat and Singket(Belt), etc. The Singpho mekhela or Bukang are very colourful, as they use various combinations of different colours. They mostly use geometric designs in their bukangs, which is unique to their tradition. Females wearing a belt (Singket) is also conventional with other dresses. Another traditional dress for women, which contains lockets called “Kumphong Kolong“, is also used. Among the Singphos the marital status of women can be determined by looking at their dresses. The married woman wears a riha(muat). The married women also tattoo their legs from the ankle to the knee in broad parallel bands which consist of eight bars in alternate black and white. However, unmarried women are not permitted to tattoo at all. Singpho women wear lots of ornaments, which include earrings, fingerings, necklaces, and headdresses, etc. They also wear armlets, which they call lokhan, on both arms. They wear ear ornaments called the Nakan, which is made of stone. The finger rings are called the Lapchap, made of brass and silver. A necklace is called khaici, mostly made of beads; nowadays necklaces of gold and silver are also available. All the ornaments are regarded as family property. The female members are allowed to use them but they are not permitted to dispose of them to anyone. They are only allowed to give it to the rightful heirs.

Singpho men used to wear a black jacket and “Bapa“(lungi) wrapped around the waist. “Bapa” are made of black, violet, and green threads. The lungis are of three different kinds.
1) Patep – woven with red and black yarn.
2) Bamo – made of muga yarn of bottle green, violet, and sky blue.
3) Pachang – made of black, violet white, and green yarn.
Another worth mentioning important ethnic attire of Singpho tribe is the traditional turban (Fumbum), worn by both men and women. The earlier Singphos used to wear colourful turban which has been replaced by white ones at present. They also carry a red bag with them.


The Singpho made shields from buffalo hide, many can be as long as four feet. They also have helmets that are made from buffalo hide and decorated with the boar’s tusks. The men occasionally wear small earrings, although the women wear large pieces of ear studs on their ears. The men lightly tattooed their limbs, arm, and shoulders. The Singpho men carry a sword known as Sheatheo dao. The sword carried by the leader is engraved with tiger claws. They also wear helmets made from buffalo hide and decorate them.

Singphos uses the Burmese pasto as an undergarment, which is woven from coloured cloth or silk in a checked pattern. A colored cotton jacket is worn over the upper portion.

The Singpho men and women wear their hair long. The man ties the knot on the crown of the head. The women dress their hair gathered into a broad knot on the crown of the head, fastening it by silver chains and tassels. The maidens tie their tresses into a roll and keep it tied just above the nape. The men wear a turban. The women also wear a turban but do not cover the knot. She fixes a pin called chatang in the knot and encircles it with a chain of silver called jadang.


Singpho traditional house

Singpho traditional house at Namdapha Eco-cultural festival

Singpho traditional house is divided into different apartment on both sides of a long passage open from one end to another end. The Singpho houses are built on raised platforms locally known as chang ghor. It is generally three to five feet above the ground. The dwelling house is called Nta. The Singpho house has mainly three parts. The Nbang means the front, the Dun means the middle, Npan means the read. They use stairs to go up and enter the house which is called Lakhann.

The entire floor area is divided into several chambers and every chamber is given a different name. The living room is called yupkhok, the guest room is called manam khok, the entrance room from the front side is called imbangtutat or nbang and the firewood store is called Npan. The first room is for the guest, the second one is for old parents (ganugawatap), the third is for the eldest son and his wife (kha ang dun) and like that for other married couples. The younger ones stay in the rear rooms(dumnta), while the unmarried girls live in the rearmost compartments (pinlakhak). The cooking area is called indab kap. Over the cooking place, they have a smoking rake. There are wall shelves to keep cooking utensils, cooked food, etc which is called the chufa. For the reservoirs of water, there is a shelf called chingthun chinat. The front side is called imbang chan, which is used to dry paddy to keep their looms etc. The easternmost corner of the veranda is used for worship, which is called choum tan chur.


The performing art of the Singphos is very colourful. They have music and dance for every occasion in life. They perform dances for merriment, in festivals, in rituals, in war victory, or even in funerals. According to Singpho mythology, the original dancing form was first performed by the Nats (spirit) and birds were invited to participate. But legends also told that it was the birds that invented the dance which was later followed by humans and given the name Manao. The folk dances of the Singphos are mainly divided into eight parts. The general pattern is the same, the meaning, mood, message are different from one another. These are – Jut Manao, Sut Manao, Padang Manao, Ningtan Manao, Kumaran Manao, Dingshwan Manao, Tingram Manao, and Nao Swat Manao.

All these folk dances are called Onk nongn kin in Singpho language.

Jut Manao

Jut Manao is performed to mark the death of a chief. Its purpose is to gain favours for the family. At the end of the festival Sapawng young, the Sut Manao dance is performed. It is a dance for prosperity – And also as a thanksgiving festival.


The Singphos are habitual drinkers of tea and rice beer known as Sapuk and Phalap. The Singpho term for tea is a popular name in the history of tea. There are two types of Phalap available. Ndum is the tea found in bamboo hollows. It can be sliced into the form of coins and sold as tea coins. The second one is Phalee; it is the tea found in loose form. These are partly sun-dried and partly fire-dried. It is mainly processed from the tea leaves collected from wild tea trees.

The Singphos are also habitual eaters of rice. They usually steam the rice. The utensils used for cooking are named as Bumung-Pungkong/Ingdi. They fill it with clean water and put it on fire. On the top of the Ingdi, another utensil having the rice is placed over the Ingdi to be boiled in steam. After the rice is cooked, it is kept to cool down and after cooling, it is wrapped up with a tree leaf called as Kou-Pat. These tree leaves used for wrapping rice are known as Sat-Makai or the Tupula-Vat. For this, they use four special varieties of rice known as soft and sticky delicious khoaji, mytong, pikhi, and changkhow. These are their indigenous products. Apart from these indigenous varieties, the Singphos cultivate a number of borrowed varieties such as Dighrong (longish like basmati and indigenous to the Tai Khamayang tribe inhabiting the powimukh area Naharkatia), another one is Myunlang which is a softer species. Coarser species include Solpona, Budumoni, Bora, etc.

Another popular type of recipe is cooking rice on bamboo pipes. This type of rice is known as Su-Pung Vat. It is very interesting to note that they even cook the vegetables in the bamboo pipe.

The Singphos used different vegetables like Sumring Mukong, Adou lep, Nqujoshi, different parts of banana tree, bamboo soot, natural spices, etc.

Among the spices, different tree leaves such as Masang, (a type of tree leaves and its seeds), Khe-Banji, Banji, Natang ban, Ban khouban are used as spices. In preparation of traditional food, they basically use less mustard oil and turmeric powder. They have different styles also cooking meat. Mostly steamed, directly put on fire, prepared on fire smoke are some common methods of preparation. The fish prepared with urium tree is another popular dish of the Singphos.

Singpho Cuisine is a traditional food which is originated from the Kachin land, and that contains northern areas of Myanmar, as well as parts of China and Arunachal Pradesh, connected with Kachin. Outside of Kachinland, Kachin which have many restaurants that have opened in Yangon and Kachin migrants that played important role in having brought the cuisine to other countries.

Shat Jam is a rice dish made from boiled rice, beans, carrots, mushrooms, and fried onions. Sometimes also includes meat such as chicken, pork or beef. This is also known as Kachin Danbauk in Burmese speaking areas.

Shan Hkak is a traditional food that contains minced beef mixed with basil, garlic, ginger, chilies and pepper.

Japhtu is also one of the traditional foods which are a spicy side dish made of pounded chilies and garlic. There are many process such as adding dried beef, fish, banana bud, or tomatoes.

Si Pa a traditional curry made with rice powder. Vegetables included are pumpkin, pumpkin leaf, mustard, mushroom, okra, long beans, cauliflower, chying lap.

Silu is also a traditional food which is a curry that contains rice powder and chicken, chilly, basil, garlic and machyang si.

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